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SPORTSMANSHIP AND THE RULES

Competitors in the sport of sailing are governed by a body of rules that they are expected to follow and enforce. A fundamental principle of sportsmanship is that when competitors break a rule they will promptly take a penalty, which may be to retire.

 

1)  Rule 2 - FAIR SAILING

A boat and her owner shall compete in compliance with recognized principles of sportsmanship and fair play. A boat may be penalized under this rule only if it is clearly established that these principle shave been violated. A disqualification under this rule shall not be excluded from the boat’s series score.

 

2)  Rule 10 - ON OPPOSITE TACKS

When boats are on opposite tacks, a port-tack boat shall keep clear of a starboard-tack boat.

 

3)  Rule 11 - ON THE SAME TACK, OVERLAPPED

When boats are on the same tack and overlapped, a  windward boat shall keep clear of a leeward boat.

 

4)  Rule 12 - ON THE SAME TACK, NOT OVERLAPPED

When boats are on the same tack and not overlapped, a boat clear astern shall keep clear of a boat clear ahead.

 

5)  Rule 13 - WHILE TACKING

After a boat passes head to wind, she shall keep clear of other boats until she is on a close hauled course. During that time rules 10, 11 and 12 do not apply. If two boats are subject to this rule at the same time, the one on the other’s port side shall keep clear.

 

6)  Rule14 - AVOIDING  CONTACT

A boat shall avoid contact with another boat if reasonably possible. However a right-of-way boat or one entitled to room;

1) need not act to avoid contact until it is clear that the other boat is not keeping clear or giving room, and  

2) shall not be penalised under this rule unless there is contact that causes damage or injury.

 

7)  Rule15 – AQUIRING RIGHT OF WAY

When a boat aquires right-of-way, she shall initially give the other boat room to keep clear.

 

8)  Rule 16 CHANGING COURSE

Rule 16.1 When a right of wayboat changes course, she shall give the other boat room to keep clear.

Rule 16.2 In addition, when after the start signal a port-tack boat is keeping clear by sailing to pass astern of a starboard boat, the starboard-tack boat shall not change course if as a result the port-tack boat would immediately need to change course to continue keeping clear.

 

9)  Rule 17 - ON THE SAME TACK; PROPER COURSE

Rule17.1 If a boat clear astern becomes overlapped within two of her hull lengths to leeward of a boat on the same tack, she shall not sail above her proper course while they remain overlapped within that distance, unless indoing so she promptly sails astern of the other boat. This rule does not apply if the overlap begins while the windward boat is required by rule 13 to keep clear.

Rule 17.2 Except on a beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat or a boat clear astern steering a course to leeward of her, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.

 

10)  Rule 18 - ROUNDING AND PASSING MARKS AND OBSTRUCTIONS

In rule 18, room is room for an inside boat to round or pass between an outside boat and a mark or obstruction, including room to tack or gybe when either is a normal part of the manoeuvre.

Rule 18.1 – WHEN THIS RULE APPLIES

Rule 18 applies when boats are about to round or pass a mark they are required to leave on the same side, or an obstruction on the same side, until they have passed it. 

However, it does not apply

(a) at a starting mark surrounded by navigable water or at its anchor line from the time the boats are approaching them to start until they have passed them, or

(b) while the boats are on opposite tacks, either on a beat to windward

or when the proper course for one of them, but not both, to round or pass the mark or obstruction is to tack.

Rule 18.2 – GIVING ROOM; KEEPING CLEAR

(a) OVERLAPPED – BASIC RULE

When boats are overlapped the outside boat shall give the inside boat room to round or pass the mark or obstruction, and if the inside boat has right of way the outside boat shall also keep clear.

Other parts of rule 18 contain exceptions to this rule.

(b) OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE

If boats were overlapped before either of them reached the four length zone and the overlap is broken after one of them has reached it, the boat that was on the outside shall continue to give the other boat room. If the outside boat becomes clear astern or overlapped inside the other boat, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.

(c) NOT OVERLAPPED AT THE ZONE

If a boat was clear ahead at the time she reached the two-length zone, the boat clear astern shall thereafter keep clear. If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped outside the other boat, she shall also give the inside boat room. If the boat clear astern becomes overlapped inside the other boat, she is not entitled to room. If the boat that was clear ahead passes head to wind, rule 18.2(c) no longer applies and remains inapplicable.

(d) CHANGING COURSE TO ROUND OR PASS

When after the starting signal rule 18 applies between two boats and the right-of-way boat is changing course to round or pass a mark, rule 16 does not apply between her and the other boat.

(e) OVERLAP RIGHTS

If there is reasonable doubt that a boat obtained or broke an overlap in time, it shall be presumed that she did not. If the outside boat is unable to give room when an overlap begins, rules 18.2(a) and 18.2(b) do not apply.

Rule 18.3 – TACKING AT A MARK

If two boats were approaching a mark on opposite tacks and one of them completes a tack in the two-length zone when the other is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not apply. The boat that tacked

Part 2 WHEN BOATS MEET 18.2

(a) shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to avoid her or prevent the other boat from passing the mark, and

(b) shall give room if the other boat becomes overlapped inside her, in which case rule 15 does not apply.

Rule 18.4 - GYBING

When an inside overlapped right-of-way boat must gybe at a mark or obstruction to sail her proper course, until she gybes she shall sail no farther from the mark or obstruction than needed to sail that course.

Rule 18.5 - PASSING A CONTINUING OBSTRUCTION

While boats are passing a continuing obstruction, rules 18.2(b) and 18.2(c) do not apply. A boat clear astern that obtains an inside overlap is entitled to room to pass between the other boat and the obstruction only if at the moment the overlap begins there is room to do so. If there is not, she is not entitled to room and shall keep clear.

 

11)  (PART OF) Rule 20 STARTING ERRORS; PENALTY TURNS; MOVING A ASTERN

Rule 20.2 - A boat making a penalty turn shall keep clear of one that is not.

 

12)  Rule 44 - PENALTIES FOR BREAKING RULES OF PART 2

Rule 44.1 TAKING A PENALTY

A boat that may have broken a rule of Part 2 while racing may take a penalty at the time of the incident.

Her penalty shall be a One-Turn Penalty unless the sailing instructions specify the use of the Scoring Penalty or some other penalty. However, if she caused injury or serious damage or gained a significant advantage in the race or series by her breach her penalty shall be to retire.

Rule 44.2 – One-Turn Penalty

After getting well clear of other boats as soon after the incident as possible, a boat takes a One-Turn Penalty by promptly making one turn in the same direction, including one tack and one gybe. When a boat takes the penalty at or near the finishing line, she shall sail completely to the course side of the line before finishing.